What bones does multiple myeloma affect first?

Multiple myeloma can weaken the bones and make them more likely to break (fracture). The spine and long bones (arms and legs) are most often affected.

Where does myeloma spread to first?

At first, the cells reproduce in the bone marrow of the spine. From there, they enter the bloodstream and travel to bone marrow in other parts of the body. They collect in the bone marrow and the hard, outer part of the bones. As this progression happens, the plasma cells can cause multiple tumors.

What is usually the first early symptom of multiple myeloma?

Multiple myeloma causes many symptoms, but bone pain often is the first symptom people notice. Other symptoms include: Weakness in your arms and legs and/or a sensation of numbness in your arms and legs. Multiple myeloma can affect the bones in your spine, causing them to collapse and press on your spinal cord.

What is the common site of bone lesions in multiple myeloma?

Bone disease is observed in almost 80% of newly diagnosed symptomatic multiple myeloma patients, and spine is the bone site that is more frequently affected by myeloma-induced osteoporosis, osteolyses, or compression fractures.

What part of the body does multiple myeloma affect?

Multiple myeloma, also known as myeloma, is a type of bone marrow cancer. Bone marrow is the spongy tissue at the centre of some bones that produces the body's blood cells. It's called multiple myeloma as the cancer often affects several areas of the body, such as the spine, skull, pelvis and ribs.

What Are The Stages Of Multiple Myeloma?

What is the most prominent symptom of multiple myeloma?

Major symptoms of multiple myeloma may include bone pain, especially in the back and the ribs; low levels of circulating red blood cells (anemia) resulting in weakness, fatigue, and lack of color (pallor); and kidney (renal) abnormalities.

What is the most common complication of multiple myeloma?

Common complications that can occur as a result of multiple myeloma include:
  • Hypercalcemia (elevated calcium levels in the blood)
  • Kidney problems.
  • Anemia (low red blood cell counts)
  • Bone problems, such as osteoporosis, bone pain, and fractures.

What is the hallmark symptom of multiple myeloma?

The hallmark symptom of multiple myeloma is bone pain. It often occurs in the back, the hips, and sometimes the skull. Some patients may experience pain that is worse at night, which disrupts their sleep. When you have multiple myeloma, your bones may easily break.

What are advanced signs of multiple myeloma?

As active multiple myeloma gets worse, you'll likely feel sicker, with fatigue or bone pain. You may have anemia, bleeding problems, or a lot of infections. Other symptoms of advanced multiple myeloma include unusual fractures, shortness of breath, weakness, feeling very thirsty, and belly pain.

Will myeloma show up in bone scan?

In multiple myeloma the osteoblastic response to bone destruction is negligible. The bone scan is often therefore normal or may show areas of decreased uptake (photopaenia). Most studies have shown that the sensitivity of skeletal scintigraphy for detecting individual deposits ranges from 40 to 60% [14, 15].

Where does your back hurt with multiple myeloma?

The spine and long bones (arms and legs) are most often affected. Fractures of the spine can cause the sections of the spine to collapse, leading to pain and, occasionally, compression of the spinal cord (the main column of nerves running down the back).

What are the red flags for multiple myeloma?

High blood levels of calcium

Extreme thirst, leading to drinking a lot. Urinating (peeing) a lot. Dehydration. Kidney problems and even kidney failure.

When should I suspect myeloma?

Signs and symptoms

It's often only suspected or diagnosed after a routine blood or urine test. However, myeloma will eventually cause a wide range of problems, including: a persistent dull ache or specific areas of tenderness in your bones. weak bones that break (fracture) easily.

How do you know what stage of multiple myeloma you have?

Multiple myeloma is staged using the Revised International Staging System (RISS) based on 4 factors:
  1. The amount of albumin in the blood.
  2. The amount of beta-2-microglobulin in the blood.
  3. The amount of LDH in the blood.
  4. The specific gene abnormalities (cytogenetics) of the cancer.

How can you tell the difference between multiple myeloma and metastasis?

In conclusion, multiple myeloma showed lower ADC values and standard deviation than metastases on DWI. The addition of axial DWI to a standard MR imaging may helpful to differentiate multiple myeloma from metastases at 3T.

How quickly does myeloma progress?

The risk of myeloma progressing is highest in the first 5 years after diagnosis. About 50 out of 100 people (50%) with smouldering myeloma develop symptoms and need treatment within the first 5 years. However, after 5 years the risk decreases and some people never develop symptoms or need treatment.

What conditions are mistaken for myeloma?

Myeloma shares some similar features and symptoms with other blood disorders, including:
  • Monoclonal gammopathy.
  • Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM)
  • Primary amyloidosis.
  • Heavy chain disease.
  • Light chain deposition disease (LCDD)
  • Plasma cell leukemia (PCL)
  • POEMS syndrome.

Is leg pain a symptom of multiple myeloma?

Nerve damage: Myeloma proteins can be toxic to your nerves. This can lead to a condition called peripheral neuropathy that causes a pins-and-needles feeling, often in your legs and feet.

What can trigger multiple myeloma?

What Are Its Causes? Exposure to toxic chemicals, atomic radiation, anything that interferes with the immune system, or infection with cancer-causing viruses, may potentially be linked to the developing myeloma.

Which is the most definitive test to confirm multiple myeloma?

Bone marrow biopsy
  • This test is required to confirm the diagnosis of multiple myeloma. ...
  • Our hematopathologists examine the tissue under a microscope to determine if there are myeloma cells in the bone marrow.

What is the most important blood test for multiple myeloma?

Complete Blood Count (CBC)

It is one of the most important blood tests used for diagnosing and monitoring myeloma patients. The CBC quantifies all the cells that make up the solid parts of blood. The liquid part of blood that is colorless is called serum. Blood cells are suspended in the serum.

What comes before multiple myeloma?

A precancerous condition called monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) A single tumor of plasma cells (solitary plasmacytoma) Smoldering myeloma, a precancerous condition that affects the plasma cells and can turn into multiple myeloma.

What is the most frequent cause of death in a patient with multiple myeloma?

Infection is a major complication and a leading cause of death in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) [1]. The risk of infection is due to a multifactorial immunodeficiency caused by the disease itself and the treatment regimens given during the different phases of therapy [2].

Does multiple myeloma show up in blood work?

Laboratory analysis of your blood may reveal the M proteins produced by myeloma cells. Another abnormal protein produced by myeloma cells — called beta-2-microglobulin — may be detected in your blood and give your doctor clues about the aggressiveness of your myeloma.

Does multiple myeloma come on suddenly?

The bone damage associated with multiple myeloma occurs mostly in the rib cage, spine and pelvis, increasing the risk of spinal cord compression, which causes pain, numbness or weakness in the limbs and requires immediate treatment. It may come on gradually or suddenly.