What blood tests would show multiple myeloma?

Tests to Find Multiple Myeloma
  • Blood counts. The complete blood count (CBC) is a test that measures the levels of red cells, white cells, and platelets in the blood. ...
  • Blood chemistry tests. ...
  • Urine tests. ...
  • Quantitative immunoglobulins. ...
  • Electrophoresis. ...
  • Serum free light chains. ...
  • Beta-2 microglobulin. ...
  • Bone marrow biopsy.


What blood levels indicate multiple myeloma?

The diagnosis of multiple myeloma requires either:
  • A plasma cell tumor (proven by biopsy) ...
  • At least 10% of the cells in the bone marrow be plasma cells. ...
  • M protein over a certain level in the blood (3g/dL) ...
  • M protein in the urine over a certain level (1g/dL) ...
  • Holes in bones due to tumor growth are found on imaging studies.


Does multiple myeloma show up in blood tests?

Laboratory analysis of your blood may reveal the M proteins produced by myeloma cells. Another abnormal protein produced by myeloma cells — called beta-2-microglobulin — may be detected in your blood and give your doctor clues about the aggressiveness of your myeloma.


What blood test suggests myeloma?

Tests used to monitor myeloma include:
  • full blood count (FBC)
  • serum protein electrophoresis.
  • immunofixation (in some cases)
  • serum free light chains.
  • serum calcium test.
  • urea, creatinine and electrolytes test.


What labs are elevated with multiple myeloma?

Doctor's Response. In many cases, myeloma is discovered when blood tests, done as part of a routine physical examination or for some other reason, reveal anemia or a high calcium level, or a high level of protein (or, less commonly, a low level of protein). A urine test may show protein in the urine.


What blood tests are used to measure myeloma and monitor response?



What are the red flags for multiple myeloma?

High blood levels of calcium

Extreme thirst, leading to drinking a lot. Urinating (peeing) a lot. Dehydration. Kidney problems and even kidney failure.

When should I suspect myeloma?

Signs and symptoms

It's often only suspected or diagnosed after a routine blood or urine test. However, myeloma will eventually cause a wide range of problems, including: a persistent dull ache or specific areas of tenderness in your bones. weak bones that break (fracture) easily.

What are the six signs of multiple myeloma?

Symptoms
  • Bone pain, especially in your spine or chest.
  • Nausea.
  • Constipation.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Mental fogginess or confusion.
  • Fatigue.
  • Frequent infections.
  • Weight loss.


What are the classical signs of myeloma?

a persistent bone pain, usually in the back, ribs or hips. tiredness, weakness and shortness of breath – caused by anaemia. high levels of calcium in the blood (hypercalcaemia) – which may cause symptoms including extreme thirst, stomach pain, needing to pee frequently, constipation or confusion. weight loss.

What are advanced signs of multiple myeloma?

As active multiple myeloma gets worse, you'll likely feel sicker, with fatigue or bone pain. You may have anemia, bleeding problems, or a lot of infections. Other symptoms of advanced multiple myeloma include unusual fractures, shortness of breath, weakness, feeling very thirsty, and belly pain.

Is WBC high in multiple myeloma?

Multiple myeloma most commonly causes: Low red blood cell count (anemia), which can lead to fatigue and shortness of breath. Low white blood cell count, which makes you more likely to get infections. Low platelet count, which can lead to abnormal bleeding.


What is the most prominent symptom of multiple myeloma?

Major symptoms of multiple myeloma may include bone pain, especially in the back and the ribs; low levels of circulating red blood cells (anemia) resulting in weakness, fatigue, and lack of color (pallor); and kidney (renal) abnormalities.

Where does myeloma pain start?

Multiple myeloma can cause pain in affected bones – usually the back, ribs or hips. The pain is frequently a persistent dull ache, which may be made worse by movement.

How is multiple myeloma first detected?

Sometimes, multiple myeloma is found early when a routine blood test shows an abnormally high amount of protein in the blood. People with MGUS (monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance) or solitary plasmacytoma are at risk of developing multiple myeloma and have regular bloodwork to monitor for it.


How do you confirm multiple myeloma?

A bone marrow biopsy is usually needed to confirm multiple myeloma. A needle is used to take a small sample of bone marrow (where all the blood cells are made) from one of your bones, usually the pelvis.

What triggers myeloma?

What Are Its Causes? Exposure to toxic chemicals, atomic radiation, anything that interferes with the immune system, or infection with cancer-causing viruses, may potentially be linked to the developing myeloma.

How do you rule out myeloma?

Bone marrow biopsy

This test is required to confirm the diagnosis of multiple myeloma. A needle is inserted into the bone marrow space to remove a small sliver of bone marrow. Our hematopathologists examine the tissue under a microscope to determine if there are myeloma cells in the bone marrow.


What is the most common complaint of multiple myeloma?

Bone pain is the most common presenting symptom in MM. Most case series report that 70% of patients have bone pain at presentation. The lumbar spine is one of the most common sites of pain. Pathologic fractures are very common in MM; 93% of patients have more than one site of bony involvement.

Do you sleep a lot with myeloma?

People living with multiple myeloma can feel extremely tired even if they're getting enough sleep. This condition is called fatigue. It's important to recognize the symptoms of fatigue and to report those symptoms to your healthcare team.

Does multiple myeloma affect your legs?

Nerve damage: Myeloma proteins can be toxic to your nerves. This can lead to a condition called peripheral neuropathy that causes a pins-and-needles feeling, often in your legs and feet.


Does multiple myeloma affect the bowels?

Some people with multiple myeloma experience constipation. Multiple myeloma is a type of bone marrow cancer, but a small portion of people with this cancer also experience gastrointestinal (GI) involvement, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, cramping, and constipation.

What is the number one cause of multiple myeloma?

Scientists still do not know exactly what causes most cases of multiple myeloma. However, they have made progress in understanding how certain changes in DNA can make plasma cells become cancerous. DNA is the chemical that carries the instructions for nearly everything our cells do.

How high is calcium in multiple myeloma?

Myeloma bone disease can result in excess bone resorption, which causes excessive release of calcium leading to hypercalcemia (defined as a serum calcium concentration > 11.5 mg/dL or 2.85 mmol/L).


What mimics multiple myeloma?

Some other conditions can appear similar to multiple myeloma, including Lyme disease, diabetes, kidney disease, and arthritis. According to the National Cancer Institute , multiple myeloma may not cause any symptoms. If symptoms do appear, they can include: bone pain, particularly in the back or ribs.

What is Stage 1 multiple myeloma?

The ISS divides myeloma into 3 stages: Stage 1 means: the level of the protein called beta 2 microglobulin (ß2-microglobulin or ß2-M) is less than 3.5 milligrams per litre (mg/L)​ the level of albumin in the blood is more than 3.5 grams per decilitre (g/dL)