What are the top 3 causes of maternal deaths?

Why do women die?
  • severe bleeding (mostly bleeding after childbirth)
  • infections (usually after childbirth)
  • high blood pressure during pregnancy (pre-eclampsia and eclampsia)
  • complications from delivery.
  • unsafe abortion.


What is the most common cause of maternal death?

During pregnancy, hemorrhage and cardiovascular conditions are the leading causes of death. At birth and shortly after, infection is the leading cause.

What are the three most important individual causes of maternal death in low and middle income countries?

We identified hemorrhage, infection and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia as the most common causes of maternal death.


What are the most common direct causes of maternal injury and death?

The most common direct causes of maternal injury and death are excessive blood loss, infection, high blood pressure, unsafe abortion, and obstructed labour, as well as indirect causes such as anemia, malaria, and heart disease.

What are the three delays in maternal health?

The "Three Delays" model proposes that pregnancy-related mortality is overwhelmingly due to delays in: (1) deciding to seek appropriate medical help for an obstetric emergency; (2) reaching an appropriate obstetric facility; and (3) receiving adequate care when a facility is reached.


Maternal Mortality Causes and its Factors



What are the top 4 causes of maternal mortality?

The major complications that account for nearly 75% of all maternal deaths are (4):
  • severe bleeding (mostly bleeding after childbirth)
  • infections (usually after childbirth)
  • high blood pressure during pregnancy (pre-eclampsia and eclampsia)
  • complications from delivery.
  • unsafe abortion.


What are the 5 causes of maternal death?

Primary causes of maternal death
  • Pre-existing maternal disease Cardiac disease e.g. rheumatic valve disease. ...
  • Non-pregnancy related sepsis AIDS. ...
  • Ectopic pregnancy.
  • Abortion Septic abortion. ...
  • Pregnancy related sepsis Amniotic fluid infection with ruptured membranes. ...
  • Antepartum haemorrhage Abruptio placenta.


What is the most common maternal disorder?

The most recognized maternal mental health disorder is postpartum depression, but there are other common mental health concerns to look out for. Juggling societal and familial expectations is a heavy burden for anyone.


What is the number one cause of trauma during pregnancy?

Motor vehicle crashes are the most common cause of blunt trauma in pregnancy, representing 50 percent of cases.

What are 4 factors that influence birth and death rates?

Population, distribution, growth and change.

What are the 3 components of maternal care?

Excerpts were categorized according to three main components of the maternal healthcare delivery system: skill birth attendant (SBA), enabling environment (EE) and referral system (RS).


Why is maternal death so high in the US?

“A high rate of cesarean sections, inadequate prenatal care, and elevated rates of chronic illnesses like obesity, diabetes, and heart disease may be factors contributing to the high U.S. maternal mortality rate. Many maternal deaths result from missed or delayed opportunities for treatment,” the researchers wrote.

What causes death of mother during pregnancy?

Heart disease and stroke cause most deaths overall. Obstetric emergencies, like severe bleeding and amniotic fluid embolism (when amniotic fluid enters a mother's bloodstream), cause most deaths at delivery. In the week after delivery, severe bleeding, high blood pressure and infection are most common.

Where is maternal mortality the highest?

Sub-Saharan Africans suffer from the highest maternal mortality ratio – 533 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births, or 200,000 maternal deaths a year.


What are the factors considered as high risk in a pregnant woman?

Smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol and using illegal drugs can put a pregnancy at risk. Maternal health problems. High blood pressure, obesity, diabetes, epilepsy, thyroid disease, heart or blood disorders, poorly controlled asthma, and infections can increase pregnancy risks.

Can babies feel trauma in the womb?

Studies have found that, as early as the second trimester, a baby can respond favorably to a mother's singing or with stress to the parents' arguing. Sonograms taken while parents yell at each other have shown babies' bodies “flinching in agitation.”

What damage can stress do to my unborn baby?

High levels of stress that continue for a long time may cause health problems, like high blood pressure and heart disease. During pregnancy, stress can increase the chances of having a premature baby (born before 37 weeks of pregnancy) or a low-birthweight baby (weighing less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces).


What causes brain damage in babies during pregnancy?

Oxygen Deprivation

The primary cause of infant brain damage (during both pregnancy and childbirth) is lack of oxygen to the brain (asphyxia). Some degree of oxygen deprivation during pregnancy or delivery is surprisingly common.

How can we avoid maternal deaths?

Making Pregnancy Safer
  1. The education of women.
  2. An increase in the use of contraception.
  3. More prenatal care.
  4. More births in hospitals or with skilled health care providers present.
  5. Greater availability of antibiotics, blood transfusions, and treatments for complications.


What are the 4 main pregnancy complications?

The following are some common maternal health conditions or problems a woman may experience during pregnancy—
  • Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) ...
  • Mental Health Conditions. ...
  • Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) ...
  • Obesity and Weight Gain. ...
  • Infections.


What are the 2 most common complications during pregnancy?

What are the most common complications of pregnancy?
  • Ectopic pregnancy: A condition where the fertilized egg implants outside your uterus (usually in your fallopian tube). ...
  • Miscarriage: Miscarriage is the loss of a pregnancy in the first 20 weeks.


What is the main cause of baby death?

Preterm birth, intrapartum-related complications (birth asphyxia or inability to breathe at birth), infections and birth defects are the leading causes of most neonatal deaths.

What is a major contributor to high maternal mortality rates in society?

The five most significant direct causes of maternal mortality—hemorrhage, sepsis, unsafe abortion, hypertensive disease of pregnancy, and obstructed labor—together account for about two-thirds of all maternal deaths.


Who has the worst maternal mortality rate?

Black Women Face Three Times the Maternal Mortality Risk as White Women. Even more concerning, however, is that the overall maternal mortality rate masks stark disparities by race and ethnicity. As illustrated by the below chart, Black women bear the brunt of this horrific burden.

What are risk factors of maternal mortality?

What factors increase the risk of maternal morbidity and...
  • Existing or pre-pregnancy health conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, asthma, or a compromised immune system.
  • Older maternal age.
  • Lifestyle factors, such as being a current or former cigarette smoker.
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