What are the four major types of toxic substances?

Types. There are generally five types of toxic entities; chemical, biological, physical, radiation and behavioural toxicity: Disease-causing microorganisms and parasites are toxic in a broad sense but are generally called pathogens rather than toxicants
A toxicant is any toxic substance. Toxicants can be poisonous and they may be man-made or naturally occurring. By contrast, a toxin is a poison produced naturally by an organism (e.g. plant, animal, insect).
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What are the type of toxic substances?

People are generally concerned about chemicals like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin which can be found at some hazardous waste sites. Products that we use daily, such as household cleaners, prescription and over-the-counter drugs, gasoline, alcohol, pesticides, fuel oil and cosmetics, can also be toxic.

What 4 things determine the toxicity of a substance?

The toxicity of a substance depends on three factors: its chemical structure, the extent to which the substance is absorbed by the body, and the body's ability to detoxify the substance (change it into less toxic substances) and eliminate it from the body.

What are the six major types of toxins?

Classes of Toxic Substances
  • Fluorinated Chemicals. Fluorinated chemicals are used in cookware, clothing, outdoor apparel, carpeting, and food packaging to provide oil and water resistant properties. ...
  • Anti-microbials. ...
  • Flame Retardants. ...
  • Plasticizers & Endocrine Disruptors. ...
  • Solvents. ...
  • Heavy Metals.

What are the five major types of toxic chemicals?

For the purposes of this Strategy, toxic compounds have been grouped into five categories: atmospherically- deposited compounds; organic and inorganic contaminants that result from industrial, manufacturing or other point and non-point discharges from facilities; pesticides; contaminants of emerging concern (CECs); and ...

Introduction to Toxic Substances

What are the three toxic substances?

Let's look more closely at three of the most common dangerous substances in our environment and signs that you may be at risk.
  • Asbestos. Asbestos is a material used in a wide variety of applications, including pipe insulation, drywall, flooring, ceiling insulation, and roofing. ...
  • Pesticides. ...
  • Paint Fumes.

What are the most toxic chemicals?

Highly Toxic Chemicals
  • Arsenic trioxide.
  • Chlorine.
  • Hydrogen cyanide.
  • Nitrous oxide.
  • Phosgene.
  • Potassium cyanide (analytical reagent and purified)
  • Sodium arsenate (analytical reagent)
  • Sodium cyanide (analytical reagent)

What are major toxicants?

Pesticides, benzene, and asbestos-like fibers such as carbon nanotubes are toxicants. Possible developmental toxicants include phthalates, phenols, sunscreens, pesticides, halogenated flame retardants, perfluoroalkyl coatings, nanoparticles, e-cigarettes, and dietary polyphenols.

What are the top 5 toxic substances in terms of human and environmental health?

Common Substances
  • Asbestos.
  • Formaldehyde.
  • Hazardous/Toxic Air Pollutants.
  • Lead.
  • Mercury.
  • Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)
  • Pesticide Chemicals. Glyphosate.
  • Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)

What are the 4 factors that affect the toxicity of a person?

3.2: Factors Affecting Toxicity
  • Form and Innate Chemical Activity.
  • Dosage.
  • Exposure Route.
  • Absorption.

How many types of toxicity are there?

Types. There are generally five types of toxic entities; chemical, biological, physical, radiation and behavioural toxicity: Disease-causing microorganisms and parasites are toxic in a broad sense but are generally called pathogens rather than toxicants.

What are the major toxic metals?

The heavy metals most commonly associated with poisoning of humans are lead, mercury, arsenic and cadmium. Heavy metal poisoning may occur as a result of industrial exposure, air or water pollution, foods, medicines, improperly coated food containers, or the ingestion of lead-based paints.

What are some major toxic substances that affect our environment?

Environmental Chemicals
  • Acrylamide.
  • Cotinine.
  • N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET)
  • Dioxin-Like Chemicals.
  • Disinfection By-Products (Trihalomethanes)
  • Environmental Phenols. Benzophenone-3. Bisphenol A (BPA) Triclosan. 4-tert-Octylphenol.
  • Fungicides and Herbicides. Sulfonylurea Herbicides.
  • Metals. Arsenic. Cadmium. Lead. Mercury.

What are 4 examples of chemical hazards?

Types of Chemical Hazards in the Workplace
  • Asphyxiant Chemical Examples: Carbon monoxide and cyanide.
  • Corrosive Chemical Examples: Sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide.
  • Irritant Causing Chemical Examples: nickel chloride and chromic acid.
  • Allergen Causing Chemical Examples: Chlorine and alkalis.

What is the most toxic chemical agent?

What VX is. VX is a human-made chemical warfare agent classified as a nerve agent. Nerve agents are the most toxic and rapidly acting of the known chemical warfare agents.

What are 10 common toxic chemicals used at home?

These may include:
  • clothes washing detergents and fabric softeners.
  • bleach.
  • solvents.
  • drain cleaners.
  • pet flea powder and shampoo.
  • metal and wood polish.
  • washing soda and borax.
  • eucalyptus oil and antiseptics.

What is an example of a natural toxic substance?

Mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are naturally occurring toxic compounds produced by certain types of moulds. Moulds that can produce mycotoxins grow on numerous foodstuffs such as cereals, dried fruits, nuts and spices.

What are the toxic materials that are present in most common items?

The 6 Most Toxic Household Chemicals
  • Antifreeze. Swallowing antifreeze (ethylene glycol) may cause damage to the heart, brain, kidney, and other internal organs. ...
  • Bleach. ...
  • Drain Cleaners. ...
  • Carpet or Upholstery Cleaners. ...
  • Ammonia. ...
  • Air fresheners.

What are 4 heavy metals that are toxic to humans?

Toxic Metals
  • Arsenic. Common sources of exposure to higher-than-average levels of arsenic include near or in hazardous waste sites and areas with high levels naturally occurring in soil, rocks, and water. ...
  • Beryllium. Elemental beryllium has a wide variety of applications. ...
  • Cadmium. ...
  • Hexavalent Chromium. ...
  • Lead. ...
  • Mercury.

What are the 4 most common metals?

5 Most Popular Types of Metals & Their Uses
  1. Steel. Steel is an iron alloy enriched with around 1% carbon and it is generally free of the impurities and residues that can otherwise be found in iron. ...
  2. Iron. ...
  3. Aluminum. ...
  4. Zinc. ...
  5. Bronze.

What are the big 4 heavy metals?

This webinar provides health care practitioners with an overview of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's (ATSDR) top four toxic metals: Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury.

How are toxins classified?

Toxins may be classified as exotoxins (those excreted by an organism, for example, bufotoxin) or endotoxins (toxins that are structurally part of bacteria, for example, botulinum). The most toxic compound is the toxin botulinum, produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.

What is the meaning of toxic substances?

Definition Of Toxic Substances

Division 6.1 Toxic Substances - These are substances liable either to cause death or serious injury or to harm human health if swallowed or inhaled or by skin contact.

What is a toxin example?

Examples include botulinum toxins (A-G), tetanus toxin, and staphylococcal enterotoxins (A-F), which are produced by bacteria; tetrodotoxin, and ciguatoxin, which are produced by animals; and ricin toxin, tricothecence mycotoxins, and abrin, which are produced by plants.

What are the five main toxic heavy metals?

Mercury, lead, chromium, cadmium, and arsenic have been the most common heavy metals that induced human poisonings. Here, we reviewed the mechanistic action of these heavy metals according to the available animal and human studies.